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Emerging trends in Indian federalism ppt

New trends& Models in Federalism - SlideShar

  1. New trends& Models in Federalism 1. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 20, Issue 11, Ver. I (Nov. 2015) PP 71-79 e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845. www.iosrjournals.org DOI: 10.9790/0837-201117179 www.iosrjournals.org 71 | Page New trends& Models in Federalism S.M.ALIFF Head, Dept. of Political Science, Faculty of Arts &Culture,South Eastern University of Sri.
  2. trends in the evolution of federalism.. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK There are quite some theories and models that seek to explain the practice of governmental relations. One of the most popular of these is Dell Wrights models of intergovernmental relations which this study adopts. These models are contained in his 1988.
  3. Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and constituent political units. Indian Federalism is different from the type of Federalism practiced in the countries like the United States of America. In this post, we analyze in detail 15 issues/challenges pertaining to Indian Federalism. Is India a true federation
  4. istrative side to be given.
  5. 1 Trends and Developments in Federalism: The Meaning for Urban Policy Charles R Waken THE EVOLUTION OF FEDERALISM Since the New Deal era of the 1930s, a steady expansion of the fiscal and programmatic responsibil- ities of the national government has characterized American federalism. Mayor Hudnut of India- napolis, 1981 president of the.
  6. Federalism in India is a historical advancement. The Federal configuration under the present constitution and its tangible operations can be grasped only on the broad canvas of its long expedition. This essay showcases Federalism in India in a twofold modus: The history of Federalism in India and the Federal Scheme under the present-day.
  7. The issue of India's federal nature has been both a subject of reiteration and conflict between the ruling party and the opposition. There have been instances when the opposition parties accused the Centre of violating the federal spirit through political and economic means, and there have been cases when the Centre alleged that the State regimes did not adhere to it

Fiscal Federalism refers to the division of responsibilities with regards to public expenditure and taxation between the different levels of the government. The Government of India Act 1919 and 1935 formalized the tenets of fiscal federalism and revenue sharing between the Centre and the states. It allows the government to optimize their costs. The fifthcommon feature of federalism is the existence of an independent judiciary, which has the last word in the interpretation of the constitution and adjudicates the disputes on the exercise of powers by the constituent units or the federal government. Federalism is an attempt in heterogeneous societies to promot Cooperative, Concomitant, Negotiatory and Opportunistic In the last decade - The current trends emphasize cooperation and coordination, rather than demarcation of powers between different levels of government. The basic theme today is interdependence. Emerging Challenges for 21st Century Federalism 2. Indian Federal Constitution and its present shape. 3. The changing dimension of modern federal Constitutions. New trends in federalism. National supremacy. Cooperative Federalism. 4. The scheme of the distribution of legislative powers in India and a comparative study of the scheme of U.S.A. and Australia Recent Trends in Federalism. A high-water mark in the shift of power to the federal government came during the administration of President Lyndon Johnson (1963-1969). This fact is not surprising because Johnson himself was a New Dealer and had faith in the ability of the federal government to address the country's problems

Over the past few decades, a clear trend has emerged worldwide toward the devolution of spending and, to a lesser extent, revenue-raising responsibilities to state and local levels of government. One view is that the decentralization of spending responsibilities can entail substantial gains in terms of distributed equity and macroeconomic management. The papers in this volume, edited by Teresa. Global Trends in Corporate Governance 7 International Trends Corporate Governance Requirements in India • US: The U.S. National Association of Corporate Directors (NACD) identifies Board's role in risk oversight. Responsibilities of the Board include, establishing company's risk management policy

Download links. Modules not included. Index: BA Political Science. EPS-03 Modern Indian Political Thought. EPS-06 Government and Politics in East and South East Asia. EPS-07 International Relations. EPS-09 Comparative Government and Politics. EPS-11 Political Ideas and Ideologies. EPS-12 Government And Politics in India 4. Trends in Public Expenditure in India. Trends in Total Public Expenditure; Socialism is in the preamble to the constitution of India. After independence the Indian government is continuously working to establish a welfare state. The study found an increasing trend in total expenditure of the both state and Indian government in absolute terms. She has also written on numerous economic issues about the United States and several emerging economies for Deloitte Insights in the past. She currently heads the Client and Insights research team and regularly advises Deloitte India's executive leadership on Indian economic outlook. rumajumdar@deloitte.com. +91 80 6188 5684 Unit V: Indian Politics: Constitution of India and its parts, executive, legislature, and judiciary in India, Federalism, the election process in India, Corruption, Indian Polity and Emerging Trends, Role of Science and Technology in development of India, Tamil society and Heritage. Mrunal Economy PPT.

Trends in Tax-GDP Ratio. India is very far from being a full tax-paying democracy. The survey notes that only 5.5% of earning people in India pay tax while only 15.5% of the Net National Income is reported to the tax authorities. Further, only 4% of India's voters are tax payers. Ideally, this number should be close to 23% THE EMERGING ROLE OF PROVINCES IN THE INDIAN FEDERATION With the advent of coalition politics from 1989, the Indian political system completely changed. It evolved from a ''single party dominant political sys- tem'' to a multiparty system that has subsequently witnessed a complete power shift in domestic politics

Indian Federalism - 15 Issues that Challenge the Federal

Video: 1. Trends and Developments in Federalism: The Meaning for ..

Federalism in India - Analysis of the Indian Constitution

Industry - Changing landscape and Emerging trends, keeping in view the strengths and potential of the Indian IT / ITeS industry, strives to enhance these aspects so as to transform the Indian IT identity to an iconic status. CII believes that this report would help turn the goals envisaged by the Industry int THE EMERGING ROLE OF PROVINCES IN THE INDIAN FEDERATION With the advent of coalition politics from 1989, the Indian political system completely changed. It evolved from a ''single party dominant political sys- tem'' to a multiparty system that has subsequently witnessed a complete power shift in domestic politics 4. Trends in Public Expenditure in India. Trends in Total Public Expenditure; Socialism is in the preamble to the constitution of India. After independence the Indian government is continuously working to establish a welfare state. The study found an increasing trend in total expenditure of the both state and Indian government in absolute terms. minimum wage. maximum ordinary hours of work. Federal award employees (cont. 12.75 and/or 20% loading for casuals (Federal Minimum Wage) if no award applies - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 19f3e4-ZDc1

The Spirit of Indian Federalism Vivekananda

  1. Regenerative braking is one of the emerging technologies of automotive industry which can prove to be very beneficent. Using regenerative braking system in a vehicle not only results in the recovery of the energy but it also increases the efficiency of vehicle(in case of hybrid vehicles) and saves energy,.
  2. A Olken (The Missing Missing Middle, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 28) that used data on the.
  3. gly indefinitely • Hong Kong, Mexico, Singapore, Turkey, Indonesia, and Brazil all borrowed substantial amounts of dollar- deno
  4. gs of the government and to compel it to became responsive to the public opinion. 4. Personality Cult: Indian Party system values the role of the leader
  5. Introduction This year, as in the previous five years, Russell Reynolds Associates interviewed over 40 global institutional and activist investors, pension fund managers, proxy advisors and other corporate governance professionals to identify the corporate governance trends that will impact boards and directors in 2021. Global Trends Predicted for 2020 Greater focus on the E&S of [
  6. Federalism and its Working with reference to Centre-State Relations, Demand for State Autonomy; Emerging Trends in Indian Federalism. 2. Election Commission, Electoral Process and its Defects and Voting Behaviour, Electoral Reforms, Problem of Defection. 3. Party System in India: National and Regional Political Parties, Interest and Pressure.

Emerging Trends in Indian Online Higher Education System. India has one of the largest higher education systems in the world. It mainly consists of three parts - university, college, and course. And, all parts of the higher education system are governed by the University Grants Commission and its professional councils In India, before the formation of the federation the States were not sovereign entities. As such, there was no need for safeguards to protect States. On account of the exigencies of the situation, the Indian federation has acquired characteristics which are quite different from the American model

The State of Learning Disabilities Facts, Trends and Emerging Issues (Third Edition, 2014) A publication of the National Center for Learning Disabilities Executive Director: James H. Wendorf, National Center for Learning Disabilities Authors: Candace Cortiella, The Advocacy Institut 1) Emerging as one of the largest economies. India's recent economic expansion has brought a record number of people out of poverty. A growing middle class has fueled impressive consumer growth.

Exactly after a year, The Draft National Education Policy 2019 is in public domain for observations and comments. Referring to the observation of HARSH V. PANT(Feb. 2018) It was satisfying to see some attention being given to the quality of teaching in India with an integrated BEd programme for teachers being planned and amending of the Right to Education Act to enable more than 13 lakh. Trend #1: Cloud-Based Systems Adoption. One of the biggest transport industry trends for 2021 is cloud-based systems adoption, since the platforms in the cloud force a software-as-a-service (SaaS) model which opens unlimited opportunities for companies scalability and innovative digital resources usage Banking Industry Trends The most prevalent trend in the financial services industry today is the shift to digital, specifically mobile and online banking (more on each of those in a bit) View Federalism and Foreign Policy.pdf from ENGLISH 123 at Svkms Nmims University. Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies Federalism and Foreign Policy: Dynamics of centre-state dissensions i Top Healthcare Trends from 2019 Trend #1. The Affordable Care Act. The ACA was enacted in March 2010 and was still one of the top 2019 healthcare trends. Although some courts have fought the legislation, it has yet to be repealed entirely. For example, in December 2018, the Texas District Court ruled that the ACA was unconstitutional

Fiscal Federalism in India Civils360 IAS Academ

The Inter-State River Water Disputes are one of the most contiguous issues in the Indian federalism today. In extreme cases, it may hamper the relationship between the different states. The recent cases of the Cauvery Water Dispute and the Satluj Yamuna Link Canal case are examples. Various Inter-State Water Disputes Tribunals have been constituted so far, but it had its own problems India is the world's seventh-largest economy, sitting between France and Italy. Its GDP growth recently dipped to 5.7%; still, India is growing faster than any other large economy except for China. By 2050, India's economy is projected to be the world's second-largest, behind only China. India is home to 1.34 billion people - 18% of the. The Western Indian Ocean (the Suez Canal, the Red Sea, the Bab el-Mandeb, the Gulf of Aden, the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman, the Arabian/Persian Gulf) is the new Gulf powers' battlefield.Saudi Arabia and Iran, as already in the Middle East, are vying for hegemony in this sub-region: the Gulf monarchies also compete for influence, especially after the 2017 Qatari crisis and Doha's boycott. The second section, Current and Emerging Product Trends in Retirement and Long-Term Care Markets, discusses how insurers are meeting the increased need for retirement products. The third section, The Impact of Technology on the Life Insurance Industry, discusses the impact of emerging technologies on the life insurance industry. Th India is globalising. Economists beli­eve that under benign conditions, it is an axiom that trade helps both parties. This article argues that this is not always so (Alagh 2019). In contrast, it is seen that recent policy initiatives for reform..

A significant recent financial development in India was the fiscal federalism reform in 2015 that was part of the Fourteenth Finance Commission's effort to give states more control of spending Top HR trends indicate even more things to add to the HR manager's to-do list. Generational differences in the workplace, for instance, require HR professionals to be more agile in their strategies for meeting each generation's expectations (Orange Business Services, 2017). HR teams must also learn to leverage technology, such as artificial.

Cooperative Federalism in India - IAS Scor

Recent Trends in Federalism - CliffsNote

  1. demand for raw resources in emerging economies, such as India and China. Additionally, high global prices for resources have allowed the three western Canadian provinces to flourish and become major sources of wealth within the Canadian federation. As these economies hav
  2. Download the entire book in PDF: ae2030_book.pdf In these essays, members of the Hoover Institution's Task Force on K-12 education, joined by several keen-eyed observers, blend prediction with prescription to paint a vivid picture of American primary and secondary education in 2030. What follows is necessarily speculative, and readers may judge portions to be wishful thinkin
  3. The purpose of this Future Trends in Policing project was to ask police leaders to take a step back from their daily operations and everyday crises, and consider the emerging issues that are changing policing in the most fundamental ways
  4. 4 Indian Economy-An Overview 22 5 Public sector in India 28 6 Fiscal and Monetary Policy 32 7 Indian Economy-Growth and Drivers 38 8 Industrial Policy of India 42 9 Challenges Faced by Indian Economy 46 10 Unemployment 54 11 Black Money in India 63 12 India and the Knowledge Economy 70 13 Foreign Direct Investment and Foreign Portfolio.
  5. Eno is an unbiased, expert source of information on critical and emerging topics in transportation Relevant. Rigorous. Independent. Learn More Get Involved. Eno Transportation Weekly (ETW) provides thorough reporting and analysis on federal, state, and local policy Informed. Insightful
  6. es how the healthcare industry is expected to face the uncertainty of 2021, building resilience for long-term survival by developing its own forecasting systems, reshaping business portfolios post-pandemic for financial stability and growth and creating a more nimble, modern supply chain

21 India : Fiscal Federalism in Theory and Practice

A new report from the World Economic Forum explores how emerging technology clusters are changing the financial services industry. AI, IoT, cloud computing and 5G, among other technologies, offer new opportunities to both consumers and businesses. Here are three ways in which we will begin to experience the effects of these technology clusters The Supreme Court of India gave all individuals in the country and the newly formed consumer groups or social action groups, an easier access to the law and introduced in their work a broad public interest perspective. Legal History. The Indian PIL is the improved version of PIL of U.S.A

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  1. e whether employees were washing their hands regularly
  2. Emerging Infections Emerging infectious disease outbreaks have occurred through-out recorded history. Examples include the Black Death in Europe, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV), West Nile Virus, 2009 H1N1 influenza A, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV), and many others
  3. Trends in abortion. The rate of safe abortions dropped between 1995 and 2003 from 20 to 15 per 1,000 women aged 15 - 44, while the unsafe abortion rate declined hardly at all — from 15 to 14 per 1,000. The overall abortion rate declined from 35 to 29 per 1,000. Trends in change in laws. Deep red, red (restrictive laws)
  4. Overview of Global Trends. In 2019, we expect to see the emergence or continued development of the following key global governance trends: 1. Board quality and composition are at the heart of corporate governance. Since investors cannot see behind the boardroom veil, they have little choice but to rely on various governance criteria as a stand.

Public Expenditure in India: Trends Analysis Using Time

  1. Emerging opportunities and challenges 11 Context The context of this article is to identify key trends that is expected to drive the power generation and transmission in India and associated opportunities and challenges. The Indian economy has experienced unprecedented economic growth over the last decade
  2. 1 Cooperative and Competitive Federalism 11 2 Shared National Agenda 12 3 State's Best Friend at the Centre 12 Commission needed to be reformed to keep up with changing trends; letting go of old practices emerging social realities to re-invent itself to make itself more relevant and effective fo
  3. The opening up of the Indian economy is a good example. Australian business still tends to think of the Indian economy as relatively closed. Yet the Indian economy of today is very different to the days of the license raj. And the Indian economy of 2035 will be different again. India's average applied tariff is today one-tenth what it was in 1990
  4. 1.5 Decentralization and Local Governance in India: A Historical Overview. India is the largest democratic federal polity; federalism in the country is characterized by constitutional demarcation of revenue and expenditure powers among the three levels of government
  5. political instability and rising trends of terrorism extremism are also additional deviators affecting the national integration in Pakistan. Significance of Research Article In the contemporary national and regional environment, Pakistan will be in a far better position to confront the challenges of the evolvin
  6. ant

India Economic Outlook Deloitte Insight

TNPSC Study Material PDF 2021 Prelims Mains Optiona

suggest that India will be the only emerging economy to maintain such an outstanding pace over the longer term, i.e. to 2050 (see Figure 1).7 Two factors underlie this favourable outlook: India's demographic profile and a robust services sector. India's population is currently just over 1.1 billion and projected to rise to 1.6 billio (i) The contemporary crisis of federalism is due to the attack on coalescent, democratic Indian nationalism by a conceptually limited and morally weak idea of Hindu nationalism. (ii) Unless this offensive is curbed, and these trends reversed, we fear we might begin to see major cracks in our distinctive nationalist project Federalism and Its Discontents: Guns, Germs and Insurrection This article explores the failures of federalism not only Cultural Brokering: A promising way of building cultural competent community based organization Emerging Trends In Retail. Retail is a pretty simple business, but what adds complexity is the size and scale. We couldn't do it without technology. In today's era, the places in the cities have become congested, infrastructure has changed, transport facilities have increased, and the speed of exchanging information has become extremely fast International Crisis Group, Ethiopia: Ethnic Federalism and its Discontents, Africa report no. 153, Brussels, ICG, 2009; Markakis (2011), op.cit.; Pankhurst, R., 'Menelik and the Foundation of Addis Ababa', The Journal of African History, vol. 2, no. 1, 1961, pp 103-117. Addis Ababa became the empire's permanent capital in around 1890.

Technology Trends 2021: Leaders wanted Every leader is a technology leader Embracing a new mindset to shape a better future After the huge disruptions caused by the COVID-19 crisis in 2020, companies are looking to get back on course and, importantly, build for the future the growing presence of emerging nations, such as China, India, and Brazil, and the shift of economic power toward them. These changes have created gaps and trade-offs that arguably are undermining the sense of security of Americans. Some may say, What good is protection from In line with their objectives of promoting local economic development and social justice, local government bodies have the power to: Prepare development plans for the areas they serve. Implement a wide range of schemes relating to 29 core areas for rural local governments, and 18 for urban local bodies Cooperative Federalism In India: Historical roots of cooperative federalism to the Mughal Period and goes on to give a panoramic coverage of its dynamic functioning in the Indian Democracy from the 1950s Is Preamble a Part of Constitution The Constitution of India begins with a Preamble The NITI Aayog was established in 2015 by the Government of India as a policy think tank. Its aim is to achieve Sustainable Development Goals through cooperative federalism, fostering the involvement of State Governments and using a bottoms-up approach. Recently launched initiatives of the Government of India provide an opportunity to re-loo

The India Forum is India's digital destination for the best reflection and long-form comment on contemporary issues presented in a reader-friendly magazine-like style. The journal-magazine that offers thoughtful analysis of contemporary issues in a reader-friendly and magazine-like manner The BRICS Law Journal is a platform for relevant comparative research and legal development not only in and between the BRICS countries themselves but also between those countries and others. The journal is an open forum for legal scholars and practitioners to reflect on issues that are relevant to the BRICS and internationally significant

Trends in Indian Public Finance 2016 - GKToda

Address the originality of student work and emerging trends in misconduct with this comprehensive solution. Gradescope . Deliver and grade all types of assessments from anywhere using this modern assessment platform. iThenticate . This high-stakes plagiarism checking tool is the gold standard for academic researchers and publishers. Similarit Government expects India's GDP to expand with a growth rate between 7-7.75 per cent during 2016-17. Public finance The fiscal policy for 2015-16 has three broad objectives, increasing the emphasis on public investment, institutionalising the dynamic structure of cooperative federalism and continuing on the path of fiscal consolidation Nepal is undergoing a historic transition toward a federal and secular republic. This represents a window of opportunity for the country to further reduce poverty, increase the income of the bottom 40 percent, and pursue its ambitious agenda of inclusive growth and accountable service delivery. Nepal Home. Overview. COVID-19 Editor's note: Since this popular story about hospitality industry trends was written in July, 2015, Smart Meetings has updated it over the years so you can follow the trends through the ages. The Hotel Show, which stages business to business events for the hospitality industry, has identified what it believes to be the Top 10 trends impacting the hospitality industry in 2015

(PDF) Bangladesh, India, and Fifteen Years of Peace

Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. Search across a wide variety of disciplines and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions 5. The principal trends in U.S. politics and foreign policy. Learning Outcomes By the end of this course, students will be able to: Make reasoned and informed arguments about events in U.S. politics and foreign policy and critically evaluate them; Distinguish between political debates and social science debates concerning U.S Functions of Niti Aayog as envisioned by the institution are : -. 1. Cooperative and Competitive Federalism. Primary platform for operationalizing Cooperative Federalism by enabling States to have active participation in the formulation of national policy, as well as achieving time-bound implementation of quantitative and qualitative targets

Another factor in the increasing demand for FNPs is the closure of rural hospitals, which significantly impacts healthcare. Between 2010 and January 1, 2020, 7% (120 in total) of all rural hospitals closed their doors.A study reported in Forbes found that another 453 rural hospitals are vulnerable and may also close.. Nearly 20% of the United States population, or 60 million people, live in. India, too, is emerging as a new pole of greater Asia's surging economic and political power. These two Asian giants comprise fully a third of the world's population--a huge labor force eager for modern work, supported by significant scientific and technological capabilities, and an army of new claimants on the world's natural resources and.

Although many of the trends and possible future developments explained in this chapter can be quite depressing, based on sixteen years of research on the 15 Global Challenges identified by The Millennium Project, I have come to the conclusion that we have the resources and ideas to address them, and that there is more agreement about how to build a better future than is evident in the media. Notes. Those students who are studing in class 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th can check the important topics, question paper and notes from the links given on this page. Subject wise notes are provided in PDF format for the ease of the candidates Federalism and a National Public Health Policy The relationships among various levels of government have always been complex and hotly contested. In most spheres of public health (e.g., injury prevention, clean air and water, and infectious disease surveillance and control), federal, state, and local governments all have a presence The impact of the US elections on our industry will become clear in 2021. But many changes remain uncertain, like the fate of Open Banking. 9. The rise of the digital regulator. If 2020 was an accelerator for the banking industry, 2021 could be similar for regulators. Expect a new type of regulator to rise. 10 Origin of Judicial Activism and its course in India. The Constitution has three instrumentalities — Executive, Legislative and Judiciary. The implementation of the State's laws and policies is the responsibility of the Executive. Whereas, the Parliament consisting of two Houses and legislatures at the State level, makes law

Global governance or world governance is a movement towards political cooperation among transnational actors, aimed at negotiating responses to problems that affect more than one state or region. Institutions of global governance—the United Nations, the International Criminal Court, the World Bank, etc.—tend to have limited or demarcated power to enforce compliance Lawctopus is India's most popular and trusted website for law students. Launched on 27th September, 2010, the website now gets 240,000+ unique visitors and generates 2.5 million (25 lakhs) page-views every month. We are now in UK, USA, Europe, and Australia too

Coalition Government and its Impact on Indian Federal

It examines concerns ranging from federalism and Hindu nationalism to caste conflict and civil society, the north-south economic divide, and politics of economic reforms. Accompanied by a substantial overview tracing the forging and consolidation of India's improbable democracy, the book, full of original insights, portrays the successes an India allowed private companies in insurance sector in 2000, setting a limit on FDI to 26%, which was increased to 49% in 2014. IRDAI states - Insurance Laws (Amendment) Act, 2015 provides for enhancement of the Foreign Investment Cap in an Indian Insurance Company from 26% to an Explicitly Composite Limit of 49% with the safeguard of Indian. Do Sat With Essay Scores Come Out Later, my first day of school essay in marathi, cover letter to apply for marketing job, sina valadkhan thesi Thailand. June 15, 2021. For nearly 70 years, The Asia Foundation has been a partner in Thailand's development. Today, our programs are helping to strengthen Thailand's leadership in ASEAN, address critical challenges such as education reform and middle-income trap, promote digital technology, and protect the rights of women and vulnerable.

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A comparison of the annual trends in illness from dengue as a proportion of all diagnoses in ill returned travelers showed sustained increases in dengue proportionate morbidity, represented by peaks that are both high and broad in 1998 and 2002 History of Marijuana. The marijuana plant has its origins as a medicinal plant thousands of years back -- many reports are traced back to Chinese Emperor Shen Nung in 2727 B.C., and was commonly. Indian renewable energy sector is the fourth most attractive renewable energy market in the world 1. India was ranked fifth in wind power, fifth in solar power and fourth in renewable power installed capacity, as of 2019. Installed renewable power generation capacity has gained pace over the past few years, posting a CAGR of 17.33% between FY16-20 We understand the stress undergraduate and postgraduate students in Nigeria, Kenya, India, Cameroon, Ghana, other African and International Schools in their final year go through when it comes to searching google scholar and other academic repository platforms on relevant research project topics and new ideas, well researched complete project materials, masters project works, seminar topics.

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Non-sociology candidates can also do selective study of some of these files for GS, Essay, Interview preparation, depending on their time n mood (e.g. MPS 003 Democracy and Development, MSOE-003 Diaspora, ESO-16 Social problems of India). Prologue Essential (Free) softwares and instructions Download links INDEX IGNOU BA Sociology ESO-11: The Study of Society ESO-12 Society in India ESO-13. countries are also the product of trends that have been at work for many decades. The continuation of these trends will make management of the security environment in the Muslim world more difficult in years to come and could increase the demands on U.S. political and military resources. Consequently, it is important to develop