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Cytochrome P450 oxidation reduction cycle SlideShare

Cytochrome p450 - SlideShar

Cytochrome p450 1. Cytochrome P450 2. History • 1947 : R.T. Williams - in vivo • Axelrod and Brodie et al., who identified an enzyme system in the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver which was able to oxidize xenobiotic compounds • Garfinkel and Klingenberg detected a CO binding pigment in liver microsomes which had an absorption maximum at 450nm • P450cam structure was solved in 198 DIFFERENT OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIALS • The standard reduction potential of the heme iron atom of a cytochrome depends on its interaction with protein side chains and is therefore different for each cytochrome • The c-type cytochromes have redox potentials ranging from - 400 to +450 mV, although they typically vary between only +200 and. Cyp450 Pavitraraj. 1. Cytochrome P450<br />The P450 enzymes have unique spectral properties, and the reduced forms combine with carbon monoxide to form a PINK compound (hence 'P') with absorption peaks near 450nm (range 447-452nm).<br />Dr. Pavitra Raj Dewda<br />1<br />

Oxidation Reaction Addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen. Normally the first and most common step involved in the drug metabolism Majority of oxidation occurs in the liver and it is possible to occur in intestinal mucosa, lungs and kidney. Most important enzyme involved in this type of oxidation is cytochrome P450 Increased polarity of the. - Cytochrome P450 - Cytochrome P450 reductase - NADPH - Molecular oxygen • The cycle involves four steps: 1.Oxidized (Fe3+) cytochrome P-450 combines with a drug substrate to form a binary complex. 2.NADPH donates an electron to the cytochrome P-450 reductase, which in turn reduces the oxidized cytochrome P-450-drug complex SlideShare Explorar Pesquisar Voc with NADPH-CYP reductase in 10/1 ratio • The reductase serves as the electron source for the oxidative reaction cycle 10 Cytochrome P450 enzymes Dr Swaroop HS copyighted 17 Reduction • Converse of oxidation • Drugs primarily reduced are chloralhydrate, chloramphenicol, halothane.. Bacterial P450 systems: employ a ferredoxin reductase and a ferredoxin CYB5R/cyb5/P450 systems: both electrons required by the CYP come from cytochrome b5. FMN/Fd/P450 systems: originally found in Rhodococcus sp. in which a FMN-domain-containing reductase is fused to the CYP. P450 only systems, which do not require external reducing power • Microsomal cytochrome P450, monooxygenase family of enzymes, which oxidize drugs. • Location-smooth endoplasmic reticulum in Liver, Kidney, intestinal mucosa, and lungs. • They catalyze: • Oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis (phase I reactions) • Glucuronide conjugation (phase II reactions) 11

This is something to keep in mind when treating malaria patients with primaquine, which after hydroxylation to 5-hydroxyprimaquine by cytochrome P450 sets up a redox cycle analogous to the one induced isouramil (only shown in part in this slide) Only the 50 P450 enzymes described in man are likely to be of any clinical relevance, and even then only the P450s in families 1, 2, and 3 appear to be responsible for the metabolism of drugs and therefore are potential sites for drug interactions. Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily Human Liver Drug CYP Therefore, in phase I drug metabolism, reactions occur through oxidation (cytochrome p450 monooxygenase system), reduction (NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase), hydrolysis (esterases), etc. Here, a range of enzymes reacts to introduce polar reactive groups to the substrate (drug). Hence, it is the phase called modification

•Oxidation -Many toxicants are metabolized by the enzymes cytochrome P-450 reductase and cytochrome P-450 in association with NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). •NADPH is a co-enzyme present in most cells; it interacts with various substances during normal cell metabolism. -These two enzymes are found in abundance in th Guide for medical student For cytochrome c oxidase, the overall reaction is: 4 ferrocyt c + 4H +N + 4H +N + O 2 ==> 4 ferricyt c + + 2H 2 O + 4H +P. Since cytochrome c is in the P-phase, 8 charges are transfered from N- to P-phase per oxygen consumed. The Fig. shows the redox components of the beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, which is a classical aa 3. reactions is the cytochrome P450 family. The structural features and functional activity of these enzymes comprise the bioinorganic aspects of drug metabolism as discussed in this section. 3.1 Bioinorganic Chemistry of Drug Metabolism The cytochromeP450 (CYP) enzymes arealso known as microsomal mixed function oxidases. The CYP enzymes are.

Cytochrome P450 reductase catalyzes the reduction of hemethiolate-dependent monooxygenases such as EC 1.14.14.1 (unspecified xenobiotic monooxygenases2) and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. This reductase is a flavoprotein containing FMN and FAD. It also reduces cytochrome b 5 and cytochrome c. Cytochrome b 5 is a 15 kDa. enzymes cytochrome P450 and catalase (see below). In general, alcohol meta­ bolism is achieved by both oxidative pathways, which either add oxygen or . remove hydrogen (through pathways involving ADH, cytochrome P450, and catalase enzymes), and nonoxidative pathways. Oxidative Pathways . As shown in Figure 1, ADH, cytochrome The cytochrome P450 system is a family of isozymes that biotransforms drugs via oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis reactions. The important gene families of these isoenzymes are CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3. Although the majority of these reactions occur in the liver, cytochrome P450 isozymes have been identified in other tissues, including kidney.

Cytochrome - SlideShar

However, most studies have shown that the cytochrome P450 enzyme is also responsible for steroid hydroxylation in filamentous fungi [9-11,13,22]. Cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) enzyme is an iron-haem system which carries out a wide range of biocatalytical transformation Cytochrome P450 is a major drug metabolizing enzyme (a way for our bodies to get rid of xenobiotics), why would you design a drug that could not be metabolized by cytochrome P450? Organofluorines in medicinal chemistry via Photoredox Organocatalysis (cont.)Nagib, Scott, and MacMillan, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131 (31), 10875-10877 The term β-oxidation refers to the Greek lettering of the carbons in organic molecules: the α carbon is right beside a functional group, and the β carbon is the next one. It is at the second carbon from the thioester, then, where the action is in β-oxidation. The reactions are as follows: 1

Side-chain breakdown: A combination of microsomal ω-oxidation, peroxisomal beta-oxidation and less well-characterized reactions generate a series of hydroxy-chroman metabolites (Parker et al., 2000; Birringer et al., 2001).TTP in liver shields RRR-alpha-tocopherol to a large extent from this type of breakdown. Cytochrome p450 3A4 and/or CYP4F2 initiates breakdown by oxidizing the methyl group. The DFT-calculated mechanism of aromatic hydroxylation of benzene is schematically depicted in Fig. 14.Thus, aromatic hydroxylation starts with an electrophilic attack of the oxo group on one of the carbon atoms of the aromatic ring to form a cationic Meisenheimer complex (2 I cat) via a transition state (2 TS 1,3) of about 18.1 kcal mol − 1 in the gas phase 4. Drug metabolism 4.5 Reductive drug metabolism Reduction of sulindac by thioredoxin Redox-active ingredients of Vicia faba Redox cycling of isouramil Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency leads to favism Redox cycling of 5-hydroxyprimaquine The anticancer prodrug CB1954 bound to quinone reductase 2 Two-step activation of the anticancer prodrug CB1954 important functional groups in. Lovastatin, sold under the brand name Mevacor among others, is a statin medication, to treat high blood cholesterol and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Its use is recommended together with lifestyle changes. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include diarrhea, constipation, headache, muscles pains, rash, and trouble sleeping. Serious side effects may include liver problems.

Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species. It belongs to a group of steroid hormones called the progestogens and is the major progestogen in the body. Progesterone has a variety of important functions in the body. It is also a crucial metabolic intermediate in the production. The Tissue Atlas contains information regarding the expression profiles of protein-coding genes in normal human tissue, both on the mRNA and protein level. The protein expression data is derived from antibody-based protein profiling using immunohistochemistry. Read more. RNA tissue specificityi

Survey of Human Oxidoreductases and Cytochrome P450 Enzymes. 3. fmo, akr, and mao enzymes. Participation of human oxidoreductases and cytochrome P450. enzymes in the metabolism of chemicals as a general group and. necessarily reflect the extent of the contribution of that enzyme. to the reaction/metabolism. For example, if one enzyme ) to the substrate and the other undergoes a two electron reduction . and is converted to water •functional enzyme consists of a membrane bound hemoprotein and a soluble flavoenzyme, P450 reductase, which transfers electrons to P450 •catalyze the oxidation, reduction or hydrolysis of both endogenous and exogenous substrate inhibition, with special reference to the cytochrome P450 system, are examined in Chapter 5. This is followed, in Chapter 6, by a discussion of the influence of sex, age, hormonal status and disease state on drug biotransformation. An introduction to the relatively new discipline of pharmacogenetics, probing the effects of gene variability on dru Cytochrome P450 enzymes primarily catalyze mixed-function oxidation reactions, plus some reductions and rearrangements of oxygenated species, e.g. prostaglandins. Most of these reactions can be rationalized in a paradigm involving Compound I, a high-valent iron-oxygen complex (FeO3+), to explain seemingly unusual reactions, including ring couplings, ring expansion and contraction, and fusion. Human cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs or P450s) are known to be reduced by their electron transfer partners in the absence of substrate and in turn to reduce other acceptor molecules such as molecular oxygen, thereby creating superoxide anions (O 2 −•).This process is known as futile cycling

Overview: Phase I metabolism . oxidation (via cytochrome P450), reduction, and hydrolysis reactions ; phase I reactions convert a parent drug to more polar (water soluble) active metabolites by unmasking or inserting a polar functional group (-OH, -SH, -NH2) geriatric patients have decreased phase I metabolis It is known, for example, that oxyferrocytochrome P-450 substrate complexes may undergo auto-oxidation and subsequently split into (ferri) cytochrome P-450, a superoxide anion radical and the substrate (S). This process is known as the uncoupling of the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) cycle and also referred to as the oxidase activity of cytochrome P-450

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency; Piperine, Curcumin and Capsaicin modulate Cytochrome P 450 reduction of AcAc to 3-β-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and into acetyl CoA which, on complete oxidation via the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, provides energy for various intracellular metabolic activities (Figure 3. ADVERTISEMENTS: Here is a compilation of notes on enzymes. After reading these notes you will learn about: 1. Introduction to Enzymes 2. Origin of Enzymes 3. Historical Landmarks 4. Meaning 5. Importance 6. Unit 7. Chemical Nature 8. Properties 9. Characteristics 10. Nomenclature 11. Classification 12. Enzymes Vs. Non-Biological Catalysts 13. Catalysts and Enzymes 14. [ Cytochrome P450 and Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase. Cytochromes of the P450 family of proteins generate 20-HETE, a potent vasoconstrictor that can be counteracted using inhibitors HET0016 or TS011. The exact role of 20-HETE in ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage is still under discussion, but blocking its activity is generally seen as. RSC ontology ID. RXNO:0000031. The Baeyer-Villiger oxidation is an organic reaction that forms an ester from a ketone or a lactone from a cyclic ketone, using peroxyacids or peroxides as the oxidant. The reaction is named after Adolf von Baeyer and Victor Villiger who first reported the reaction in 1899. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation The most important enzyme system of phase I metabolism is cytochrome P-450 (CYP450), a microsomal superfamily of isoenzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of many drugs. The electrons are supplied by NADPH-CYP450 reductase, a flavoprotein that transfers electrons from NADPH (the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) to.

Cyp450 Pavitraraj - SlideShar

The major liver enzyme system involved in phase I metabolism (oxidation) is the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system . Thus far, 18 CYP families have been identified in mammals, although only CYP1, CYP2, CYP3 and CYP4 are involved in drug metabolism, with CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 being responsible for the. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are the main xenobiotic inactivators in humans. The main families of CYP450 enzymes involved in drug metabolism are the monooxygenases of the CYP1, CYP2 and CYP3 families.. Prescribers need to be aware of drug interactions with any of these enzymes that may alter responses to any other prescribed medications

Such oxidation is usually catalyzed by mixed function oxidases, including cytochrome P450 enzymes and has been extensively investigated (Watanabe, 2000). Located in endoplasmic reticulum P450 enzymes usually function as terminal oxidases of electron-transport chains Cytochrome p450 isoenzymes are used to determine the level of drug inhibition, induction or drug-drug interaction that takes place. The ultra-low dispersion and system dwell volume of UPLC technology enables the rapid analysis of these enzymes in less than 30 seconds. (Fig. 3). shows the chromatogram of an assay of cytochrome P450

Metabolism I - SlideShar

Drug metabolism - SlideShar

  1. A generally held belief is the aforementioned tumor promoters affect the cell cycle in target tissues through the inappropriate activation of xenobiotic receptors. That is, a protein such as the ER has evolved to respond to its natural effector, estrogen, and the response is short-lived and the target genes regulated in a temporally appropriate.
  2. Reactive oxygen species have been reported to inhibit progesterone synthesis by inhibition of cytochrome P450 side‐chain cleavage, 16, 19 3β‐HSD 16 and intracellular transport of cholesterol to mitochondria. 18, 79, 81 Sawada and Carlson, and Wu et al. reported that reactive oxygen species cause several changes that disrupt the plasma.
  3. Phase I - in which drug molecules are altered chemically (by oxidation, reduction or hydrolysis) to make them suitable for Phase II reactions or for excretion. Oxidation is much the commonest form of Phase 1 reaction and involves chiefly members of the cytochrome P450 family of membrane-bound enzymes in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of the.

These data support a mechanism for cytochrome reduction involving a requisite movement of the flavin domains in the intact cytochrome P450 reductase enzyme and the formation of a complex with the cytochrome. The product of luxG is a flavin reductase that consists of 206 amino acids, corresponding to a subunit molecular mass of ∼26 kDa Cytochrome P450 gene mutations are one common cause of variation in the dose-response relationship with warfarin. Warfarin in the liver is oxidized by the cytochrome enzyme CYPC29 from this. Linoleic acid has multiple potential metabolic fates, including the following: (a) β-oxidation, yielding acetyl-CoA for energy via the Krebs cycle; (b) sequential elongation to C26:2n-6; (c) desaturation and elongation to arachidonic acid, adrenic acid (C22:4n-6), and docosapentaenoic acid n-6 (C22:5n-6) 16,17; (d) formation of products of. 11.2 Microbial Cytochrome P450 191. 11.3 Extent of P450s in Microbial Genome 193. 11.4 Structure, Function and Catalytic Cycle 194. 11.5 Strain Engineering for Improved Activity 197. 11.6 Producion Strategies of CYP450 203. 11.6.1 Bioreactor Consideration 203. 11.6.2 Protein Recovery 204. 11.7 Applications 205. 11.7.1 Environmental Application 20

Biotransformation - pt

  1. Oxidation definition is - the act or process of oxidizing. So non-oxidative processes such as ATP-PC (quickly depleted) and non-oxidative glycolysis enter the game. Instead, the cells where the ATP is produced require glucose (carbohydrates that have been broken down) as the fuel source
  2. conversion of cholesterol into bile acids slideshare. Uncategorized.
  3. These enzymes are used in a variety of different organisms to accomplish a vast array of goals. Transferases are a class of enzymes responsible for catalyzing reactions where groups of atoms are moved from one molecule to another. B) The metastable state is formed by transient complexes with the substrate. The data from a representative example of three independent experiments are presented as.
  4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is inherited in an X-linked pattern. A condition is considered X-linked if the mutated gene that causes the disorder is located on the X chromosome, one of the two sex chromosomes in each cell. Males have only one X chromosome and females have two copies of the X chromosome
  5. ation by kidneys - Addition or revealing OH-, a

The electrons required to drive the P450 catalytic cycle can come from a variety of sources. The redox midpoint potentials of ferrous P450 enzymes in the presence or absence of substrate are generally reported to be in the range of −300 to −225 mV, and in eukaryotic systems the first electron usually comes from oxidation of NAD(P)H by a diflavin reductase partner protein (cytochrome P450. Cytochrome P450 is a convenient generic term used to describe a large superfamily of enzymes pivotal in the metabolism of innumerable endogenous and exogenous substrates. The term cytochrome P450 was first coined in 1962 to describe an unknown pigment in cells which, when reduced and bound with carbon monoxide, produced a characteristic. The committed steps in ABA catabolism are categorized into two types of reactions: hydroxylation and conjugation. 8 Normally, the ABA is converted into a compound hormonally inactive and unestable (i.e. 8′-hydroxy ABA) through the intervention of the ABA 8′-hydroxylase, which is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450), 43 whose family has. Urlacher, V. B. & Girhard, M. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases: an update on perspectives for synthetic application. Trends Biotechnol. 30 , 26-36 (2012). CAS PubMed Google Schola Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze a broad set of C-H activation reactions, the most prominent being hydroxylation. This review provides an overview of the regioselectivity (CH3-terminal, in-chain, and carboxylate-terminal) and the optical purity of the hydroxylation products obtained from fatty acids as far as described, focusing on systems close to preparative application

In addition, NADPH supplies catalytic reducing power in anabolic processes, such as fatty acids or cholesterol synthesis, and takes part in xenobiotic metabolism and in drug and chemical detoxification mechanisms through the group cytochrome P450 2 Projean, D. et al. Identification of CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 as the major cytochrome P450 s responsible for morphine N-demethylation in human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 33 , 841-854 (2003) PhiP causes mutations much like aflatoxin. Oxidation of PhiP's exocyclic amino group by a cytochrome P450 oxidase generates highly reactive N-OH-PhiP, which again reacts with guanine to form a DNA adduct. In today's society, potential hidden environmental carcinogens are the focus of a lot of anxiety The radical-radical interaction yields at least two dimers of paracetamol, the major being 3,3′diparacetamol. Two-electron oxidation by cytochrome P450 produces the hepatotoxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-quinone imine (NAPQI) which is deactivated by reaction with glutathione (GSH). Some NAPQI is also formed by the peroxidase function of the COX. The oxidation step requires heme as a substrate, and any hemin (Fe 3+) is reduced to heme (Fe 2+) prior to oxidation by heme oxygenase. The heme oxygenase-mediated oxidation occurs on a specific carbon producing the linear tetrapyrrole biliverdin, ferric iron (Fe 3+), and carbon monoxide (CO). This is the only reaction in the body that is known.

Drug metabolism : Biotransformation - pt

  1. K and its epoxide. Vita
  2. Synthesis of Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids. Most of the omega-6 PUFA consumed in the diet is from vegetable oils such as soybean oil, corn oil, safflower oil, and borage oil, and consists of the 18-carbon (18:2) PUFA linoleic acid. Linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid, is converted to arachidonic acid through the steps outlined in the.
  3. Subsequent treatments of the cytochrome P450 arom protein fractions by precipitation, extensive washings, and SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the radioactive inhibitors remain bound to the cytochrome P450 arom protein. Thus, the mechanism-based inactivation that occurs is due to irreversible, covalent binding of the inhibitors to the enzyme protein
  4. A larger set of transcripts encoding UDP-glycoyl transferase and cytochrome P450 were differentially regulated in response to all three pathogens (Additional file 1: Table S9). Both UDP-glycoyl transferase and cytochrome P450 are involved in secondary metabolism, responses to biotic and abiotic stress and oxidation/reduction process
  5. Linoleic acid has multiple potential metabolic fates, including the following: (a) β-oxidation, yielding acetyl-CoA for energy via the Krebs cycle; (b) sequential elongation to C26:2n-6; (c) desaturation and elongation to arachidonic acid, adrenic acid (C22:4n-6), and docosapentaenoic acid n-6 (C22:5n-6) 16,17; (d) formation of products of.
  6. Guengerich FP (2007) Mechanisms of cytochrome P450 substrate oxidation: MiniReview. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 21:163-168. CAS PubMed Google Scholar 62. Guengerich FP (2008) Cytochrome p450 and chemical toxicology. Chem Res Toxicol 21:70-83. CAS PubMed Google Scholar 63
  7. IntechOpen is a leading global publisher of Journals and Books within the fields of Science, Technology and Medicine. We are the preferred choice of over 60,000 authors worldwide

Drug metabolism - University of Waterlo

Reduction in size of organ/tissue Cytochrome P450 nenzymes SmoothERinliver Partofphase 1metabolism Generatebioactiveintermediates(freeradicals) Drug R. Geetha/Slideshare . 17 Caseous Necrosis heese like Rarely occurs outside of tuberculosis infectio the electron transport chain and an enzyme of the Krebs/TCA cycle. Ubiquinol cytochrome c oxidoreductase Complex III is composed of 11 subunits and catalyzes electron transfer from reduced ubiquinone or coenzyme Q10 to cytochrome c. Only one of the complex subunits, cytochrome b, is encoded on mtDNA. The rest are nuclear encoded. Cytochrome The major pathway for the synthesis of the bile acids is initiated via hydroxylation of cholesterol at the 7 position via the action of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) which is an ER localized enzyme. CYP7A1 is a member of the cytochrome P450 family of metabolic enzymes. This pathway is depicted in highly abbreviated fashion in the Figure. The multivariate data analysis approach to identifying potential drug metabolites. Beginning with an S-Plot (center), suspected drug metabolites can be identified using: (1) the trend plot feature in SIMCA-P to demonstrate the absence of the suspected drug metabolite in vehicle-treated animals; (2) comparing extracted ion chromatograms for the presence (drug-treated) and absence (vehicle.

Drug Interactions Cytochrome P450 Drug Metabolis

  1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a complex of three enzymes that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by a process called pyruvate decarboxylation. Acetyl-CoA may then be used in the citric acid cycle to carry out cellular respiration, and this complex links the glycolysis metabolic pathway to the citric acid cycle.Pyruvate decarboxylation is also known as the pyruvate dehydrogenase.
  2. o derivative. This derivative can be acetylated, hydroxylated and glucuronidated. Cytochrome P-450 including CYP3A, may play an important role in Clonazepam reduction and oxidation. The eli
  3. ated by hepatic metabolism Cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) enzymes, P. glycoproteins are increasingly being recognized fo
  4. The photo-oxidation and re-reduction of purified cytochrome c(2) were observed in the presence of membrane preparations. Flash-induced photo-oxidation and re-reduction of the RC-bound cytochrome were also observed in intact cells. an oxidation from a cytochrome P450 enzyme to a spiro-oxindole, nucleophilic attack from the enol at C16, and.
  5. cytochrome c oxidase of complex IV in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) that catalyzes the four electrons reduction of O 2 to H 2 O (Thannickal and Fanburg, 2000). Coenzyme Q (CoQ, ubiquinone) behaves as an electron pool and a mediator of the electro

Difference Between Phase I and Phase II Metabolism

Xenobiotics, Biotransformations, Detoxicatio

Cytochrome oxidas

Alcohol is metabolized Quizlet. Start studying Alcohol Metabolism.Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools alcohol metabolism ethanol is metabolized mainly by the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme in the cytosol of the liver. the product is toxic acetaldehyde. acetaldehyde dehydrogenase concerts this toxin to nontoxic acetate in the mitochondria which can be. Cumarinic anticoagulant drugs interfere with the redox cycle of vitamin K, a very important cofactor in the synthesis and activation of some vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors, such as factor II (prothrombin) and factors VII, IX and X The oxidation-reduction cycle of vitamin K involved in the blood coagulation process involves the. drug metabolism: Definition Drug metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and converts medication into active chemical substances. Precautions Drugs can interact with other drugs, foods, and beverages. Interactions can lessen or magnify the desired therapeutic effect of a drug, or may cause unwanted or unexpected side effects.. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease characterized by the production of autoreactive antibodies and cytokines, which are thought to have a major role in disease activity and progression. Immune system exposure to excessive amounts of autoantigens that are not efficiently removed is reported to play a significant role in the generation of autoantibodies and the pathogenesis of SLE

GENERAL ARTICLE Drug Metabolis

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